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The collaborative XRISM mission of JAXA/NASA and ESA and its objectives.

The X-Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission (Krizz-em)! Scheduled for launch in August 2023, this collaborative mission between JAXA, NASA, and ESA will be studying the gas in galaxy clusters, the chemical enrichment of the universe, and extreme physics around accreting supermassive black holes.

The mission consists of two parts: XRISM’s Resolve instrument, which will be used to observe and analyze X-rays from these distant galaxies, and SRON’s Resolve Filter Wheel Mechanism (RFWM), which will be used to filter out background radiation. The RFWM is a special device designed by the University of Geneva in Switzerland and SRON in the Netherlands. It consists of a filter wheel with multiple filters that can be adjusted to block out certain frequencies of radiation.This will allow scientists to more accurately observe X-rays from these galaxies.

The spacecraft will also carry several other components, including loop heat pipes for XRISM’s Resolve instrument, a star tracker (to tell the spacecraft where it is pointing), two geomagnetic aspect sensors (to measure Earth’s magnetic field) and three magnetic torquers (to orient the spacecraft correctly with respect to Earth’s magnetic field). The mission will also involve several European contributions, which include a portion of the mission’s total Guest Observing Time that is allocated to ESA.

Krizz-em aims to shed light on some of the most mysterious aspects of our universe. By studying gas in galaxy clusters and the extreme physics around accreting supermassive black holes, scientists hope to gain a better understanding of cosmic processes that occur in our universe. Additionally, by studying the chemical enrichment of the universe, researchers believe they can better understand how different elements were formed and distributed throughout space.

In order to accomplish this ambitious goal, Krizz-em requires incredibly precise scientific instruments and components that will be able to make accurate measurements and detect X-rays from extremely distant galaxies. The mission also relies on a collaborative effort between JAXA, NASA, and ESA.

Objective of XRISM (X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission).

XRISM (X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) will study the Universe in X-ray light with an unprecedented combination of light gathering power and energy resolution. The mission will provide with a picture of the dynamics in galaxy clusters, the chemical make-up of the Universe, and the flow of matter around supermassive black holes (Active Galactic Nuclei or AGN).

Will be using X-ray light to better understand the evolution of the Universe by looking at its biggest building blocks: galaxy clusters. Galaxy clusters are large structures held together by gravity and can contain thousands of galaxies. Most of the gas in these clusters has temperatures around tens of million degrees and emits X-ray light, which XRISM will be able to use to determine the velocities and energies of the gas. In addition, XRISM will be measuring the total mass of clusters at different cosmic ages in order to help us understand the growth of large structures in the Universe.
When we observe the Universe in X-ray light, we can also uncover what it is made from. During the Big Bang, only four lightest elements were formed (hydrogen, helium, lithium and beryllium). Heavy elements like carbon, oxygen and iron were formed later on in stars. Even heavier elements are only formed during very energetic events like when massive stars die as supernovae. In these residuals, new stars are born and they contain these newly created elements. XRISM will be studying this enrichment of elements and how it contributes to chemical evolution of the Universe by determining the number of heavy elements present in the gas between galaxies in clusters.

The power of Black hole.

For centuries, black holes have been mysterious objects whose immense gravity could not be predicted or fully understood. But thanks to advances in science and technology, we are now able to explore the power of black holes in a way never before possible. In particular, X-ray light has revealed a number of energetic phenomena associated with black holes, including Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN).

AGN are regions of galaxies with supermassive black holes at their centers. Supermassive black holes can be millions to billions of times more massive than our Sun, and their gravity can cause an immense gravitational pull on their surroundings. This pull is so strong that it can draw matter into the black hole, which then generates X-rays that XRISM is able to detect. By studying these X-rays, scientists are able to learn more about the power of these mysterious objects.

One thing scientists have yet to understand fully is how the gravitational pull of a black hole affects its environment. While this is difficult to study on Earth due to its extreme gravity, XRISM will be able to observe how matter behaves in these extreme environments. Additionally, XRISM will be able to detect material ejected from black holes at very high speeds, offering more insight into the power of these objects.

Studying black holes can also help better understand the relationship between the growth rate of stars and the growth rate of supermassive black holes. This connection is important because it helps understand how galaxies form and evolve over time. By understanding this connection better, we can gain insight into our Universe and develop more effective models for studying galaxies and the evolution of the Universe.

Journey and orbit:

The XRISM spacecraft will travel to a low-Earth orbit at a height of 550km. It is tilted 31.0° at it travels around the Earth, allowing it to view different parts of the sky as it orbits. This inclination is chosen to ensure that XRISM is able to collect data from all parts of the sky and provide a comprehensive view of the universe.

XRISM will have three main science instruments aboard: an X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS), a Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT), and a Hard X-ray Imager (HXI). These instruments will enable XRISM to provide us with a wealth of new information about our universe and its origins.

The spacecraft will use its onboard cryogenic system to cool Resolve, the main spectrometer, down to its operational temperature of -273.10°C. This cryogenic system allows Resolve to function properly by keeping its sensitive components within their optimal temperature range. The spacecraft is scheduled to operate for three years until its cryogen runs out, but there are plans for possible extensions using onboard mechanical coolers even without cryogen.

The collaborative XRISM mission of JAXA/NASA and ESA and its objectives.

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